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15 Search Results for "Barrington"

  • William_Schenck

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  • What Is The Purpose Of The Ame What Is The Purpose Of The American High School?

    • From: Steven_Weber
    • Description:

       

      The American High School

       

      Graduating from high school has become increasingly important and is viewed as a minimum requirement for success in terms of employment, salary, and future career choices (Gwynne, Lesnick, Hart, & Allensworth, 2009). The majority of high school graduates in the United States are not academically prepared for the rigor of postsecondary education or to enter the workforce (American College Test [ACT], 2009; Conley, 2007; Flippo & Caverly, 2009). “Of every 100 students who enter ninth grade in a public high school in North Carolina, only 70 graduate within five years. Only 42 of them enroll in college, and only 19 of them complete a two-year or four-year degree within six years of graduating from high school” (Public Schools of North Carolina, 2008, p. 20). “National leaders and the education policy community have embraced the idea that the education system must establish ‘college and career readiness’ as the goal for all students” (Pinkus, 2009, p. 1). If the goal of the American high school is to graduate all students ‘college and career ready,’ then educators must examine what it takes to prepare students for the next step in life.

       

       

      The Comprehensive High School

       

      “The U.S. comprehensive high school was designed for many often conflicting purposes, and it did not focus primarily on college preparation” (Kirst & Venezia, 2006). According to Pinkus (2009), “The nation faces a dual education challenge: address the dropout crisis, and shift the goal of the public school system to college and career readiness for all students” (p. 17). If educators are going to increase high school graduation rates and make the shift to college and career readiness for all students, then school leaders will need timely data in order to determine whether students are on the path to college enrollment (National Governors Association, 2009). Educators cannot focus on college and career readiness if they do not know where students stand (Roderick, Nagaoka, & Coca, 2009).

       

       

      The Committee of Ten

       

      In 1893, the Committee of Ten determined “every subject which is taught at all in a secondary school should be taught in the same way and to the same extent to every pupil so long as he pursues it, no matter what the probable destination of the pupil may be” (National Education Association, 1893). Since that time, one of the ongoing philosophical debates in American education has been whether high schools should become college prep for the masses or an avenue to career readiness.

       

       

      The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

       

      Unlike the report written by the Committee of Ten, the authors of The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education noted that it was counterproductive to demand that students follow a college preparatory program, since a majority of high school students would not enroll in the nation’s colleges or universities. The authors believed that students should have a differentiated curriculum based on each student’s needs, interests, and abilities. In 1900, only 10 percent of the nation’s fourteen to seventeen year old population attended high school – twenty years later, 31 percent were enrolled (Snyder, 1993).

       

       

      The Conant Report

       

      In 1959, James Bryant Conant, former president of Harvard University, wrote The American High School Today. Conant (1959) asked, "Can a school at one and the same time provide a good education for all the pupils as future citizens of a democracy, provide elective programs for the majority to develop useful skills, and educate adequately those with a talent for handling advanced academic subjects” (p. 15)? Conant’s questions outlined the struggle to define the purpose of public high schools in the United States. In the late 1800’s, the American high school was designed for college bound students and less than ten percent of students graduated from high school. From the report by The Committee of Ten through the 1950’s, the debate over public high schools and their purpose could be summarized by the thoughts of Edward Thorndike. Thorndike (1906) declared “no high school is successful which does not have in mind definitely the work in life its students will have to perform, and try to fit them for it” (p. 180).

       

       

      College and Career Readiness

       

      “In many ways, the United States produces the college outcomes that its systems of education were designed to produce. Its K–12 system was developed to provide education to everyone; its college and university system was developed when only a few were expected to attend college. Today, the vast majority of high school students aspire to attend college, but only about half of the students who enroll in college are prepared for college-level academic work” (Callan et.al., 2006, p. 21). Nearly one-third of all high school students leave the public school system before graduating (Swanson, 2004). A high school diploma should signify that students have attained college-ready knowledge and skills (Callan et.al., 2006; Conley, 2007, Pinkus, 2009; SREB, 2010). “Students who are college ready should be able to succeed in entry-level, credit bearing college courses without the need for remediation. Other factors associated with college success (e.g., motivation, study skills, attitudes) may be equally important in evaluating outcomes such as persistence, college graduation or post-college readiness” (Wiley, Wyatt, & Camara, 2010, p. 3).

       

      Reports indicate nearly 60 percent of first-year college students discover that, despite being fully eligible to attend college, they are not academically ready for postsecondary studies (SREB, 2010). “While a majority of high school graduates enter college, fewer than half leave with a degree” (American Diploma Project, 2004, p. 3). High school graduates and students who do not graduate from college make up a majority of the workforce. It is becoming clear that it is equally important for career-bound students and college-bound students to receive a strong K-12 education (Boykin, Dougherty, & Lummus-Robinson, 2010; CTE, NASDECTEC & P21, 2010).

       

       

      A Broken Promise

       

      The American high school was designed to prepare a small percentage of students for college. In recent years, educators, policymakers, and employers have pointed to surveys and data on employees indicating that high school graduates are underprepared for the 21st century workforce (ACT & The Education Trust, 2004; Achieve, Inc., 2004; Achieve, Inc., 2005; ACT, 2006; Casner-Lotto, & Barrington, 2006; Jerald, 2008; Wagner, 2008; Casner-Lotto, Rosenblum, & Wright, 2009; CTE, NASDECTEC & P21, 2010; Symonds, Schwartz, & Ferguson, 2011). “The United States is developing a deep social consensus that American high schools should ensure that all adolescents graduate from high school prepared for postsecondary schooling and training” (Balfanz, 2009, p. 17). In recent years, policymakers have begun to emphasize the goal that all students graduate from high school college- and career-ready (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, National Conference of State Legislatures, National Association of State Boards of Education, & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008). However, the diploma from an American high school signifies a broken promise, according to a report published by the American Diploma Project (2004). The majority of recent high school graduates in the United States are not academically prepared for the rigor of postsecondary education or to enter the workforce (ACT, 2009; Conley, 2007, Flippo & Caverly, 2009).

       

       

      Questions for Discussion on ASCD EDge:

       

      • Do teachers in your school discuss college and career readiness as a goal for all students?

        

      • What are the current barriers to preparing more students for college and career(s)?

       

      • Do you believe that a diploma from an American high school is a ‘broken promise?’

       

      • Which changes need to be made in curriculum and instruction?

       

      • Which changes need to be made in assessment?

       

      • What role do elementary and middle school educators play in preparing students for college and career(s)?

       

      • What do the nation’s best high schools do to prepare students for college and career(s)?

    • Blog post
    • 3 years ago
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  • College and Career Readiness College and Career Readiness

    • From: Steven_Weber
    • Description:

      At the turn of the century, a professor at the University of Mississippi described the perspective of many Americans. Saunders (1903) wrote, “College education is desirable and theoretically necessary for preeminence, but it is not for the masses, and it would be but a utopian theory to plan for the day when a bachelor's degree shall be a qualification for suffrage or a necessity for success and happiness” (p. 73).

       

      College readiness for all is a new concept in American education. A recent report from the College Board defined college readiness as “Students who are college ready should be able to succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing college courses without the need for remediation. Other factors associated with college success (e.g., motivation, study skills, attitudes) may be equally important in evaluating outcomes such as persistence, college graduation or post-college career readiness” (Wiley, Wyatt, & Camara, 2010). A study titled, Ready for College and Ready for Work: Same or Different (2006) concluded that the knowledge required for entry-level workers is nearly the same knowledge and skills required for college-going students. Achieve, an independent, bi-partisan, non-profit education reform organization led by governors and business leaders, recently defined College and Career Readiness as being prepared for the next steps, that all doors remain open as students continue to pursue their education and careers.

       

      According to the Association for Career and Technical Education (2010), Career Readiness involves three major skill areas: core academic skills and the ability to apply those skills to concrete situations, employability skills - such as critical thinking and responsibility, and technical, job-specific skills. Traditional high schools have treated college and career readiness as two separate tracks or pathways (ACT, 2006; ACTE, 2010; Boykin, Dougherty, & Lummus-Robinson, 2010; Duncan, 2011; & Miller, 2009). Most high schools have traditionally treated college and career as mutually exclusive options (Symonds, Schwartz, & Ferguson, 2011). Recent studies have indicated an overwhelming percentage of new jobs that offer a wage sufficient to support a family and provide opportunity for career advancement require some postsecondary education and evidence shows that the skill level required to enter college or a work-training program are the same (Achieve, 2004; Achieve, 2005; ACT, 2006; America’s Promise Alliance, 2008; College Board, 2010; U.S. Department of Labor, 2008; Markow & Pieters, 2011).

       

      For over a century, educators, policymakers, and families have struggled to define the purpose and goals of secondary education. In 1893, the Committee of Ten determined “every subject which is taught at all in a secondary school should be taught in the same way and to the same extent to every pupil so long as he pursues it, no matter what the probable destination of the pupil may be” (National Education Association, 1893). Since that time, one of the ongoing philosophical debates in American education has been whether high schools should become college prep for the masses or an avenue to career readiness. In 2009, President Barack Obama called on all Americans to commit to at least one year of higher education or career training, as he stressed the importance of better schooling in reviving the nation's economy during his first address to Congress. The President of the United States said, "So tonight I ask every American to commit to at least one year or more of higher education or career training. This can be a community college or a four-year school, vocational training or an apprenticeship. But whatever the training may be, every American will need to get more than a high school diploma” (White House, 2009).

       

      The American high school was designed to prepare a small percentage of students for college. In recent years, educators, policymakers, and employers have pointed to surveys and data on employees indicating that high school graduates are underprepared for the 21st century workforce (ACT & The Education Trust, 2004; Achieve, Inc., 2004; Achieve, Inc., 2005; ACT, 2006; Casner-Lotto, & Barrington, 2006; Jerald, 2008; Wagner, 2008; Casner-Lotto, Rosenblum, & Wright, 2009; CTE, NASDECTEC & P21, 2010; Symonds, Schwartz, & Ferguson, 2011). “The United States is developing a deep social consensus that American high schools should ensure that all adolescents graduate from high school prepared for postsecondary schooling and training” (Balfanz, 2009, p. 17). In recent years, policymakers have begun to emphasize the goal that all students graduate from high school college- and career-ready (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, National Conference of State Legislatures, National Association of State Boards of Education, & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008). However, the diploma from an American high school signifies a broken promise, according to a report published by the American Diploma Project (2004). The majority of recent high school graduates in the United States are not academically prepared for the rigor of postsecondary education or to enter the workforce (ACT, 2009; Conley, 2007, Flippo & Caverly, 2009).

       

      “In many ways, the United States produces the college outcomes that its systems of education were designed to produce. Its K–12 system was developed to provide education to everyone; its college and university system was developed when only a few were expected to attend college. Today, the vast majority of high school students aspire to attend college, but only about half of the students who enroll in college are prepared for college-level academic work” (Callan et.al., 2006, p. 21). Nearly one-third of all high school students leave the public school system before graduating (Swanson, 2004). A high school diploma should signify that students have attained college-ready knowledge and skills (Callan et.al., 2006; Conley, 2007, Pinkus, 2009; SREB, 2010). “Students who are college ready should be able to succeed in entry-level, credit bearing college courses without the need for remediation. Other factors associated with college success (e.g., motivation, study skills, attitudes) may be equally important in evaluating outcomes such as persistence, college graduation or post-college readiness” (Wiley, Wyatt, & Camara, 2010, p. 3). Reports indicate nearly 60 percent of first-year college students discover that, despite being fully eligible to attend college, they are not academically ready for postsecondary studies (SREB, 2010). “While a majority of high school graduates enter college, fewer than half leave with a degree” (American Diploma Project, 2004, p. 3). High school graduates and students who do not graduate from college make up a majority of the workforce. It is becoming clear that it is equally important for career-bound students and college-bound students to receive a strong K-12 education (Boykin, Dougherty, & Lummus-Robinson, 2010; CTE, NASDECTEC & P21, 2010).

       

      “The mission of the public education system must shift from educating some students and preparing them for the twentieth-century American economy to educating all students and preparing them for the twenty-first century global economy” (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009, p. 4). Educators cannot focus on college and career readiness if they do not know where students stand (Roderick, Nagaoka, & Coca, 2009). “Accurately measuring and diagnosing college readiness is the first step to helping a greater number of students achieve college readiness” (Wiley, Wyatt, & Camara, 2010, p. 14). How does your school measure College and Career Readiness?

    • Blog post
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  • Rebecca_Carranza

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